The VMware Workspace ONE Unified Access Gateway (UAG) has continued to ramp up for VMware customers everywhere. We all need them now for our WS1 infrastructure whether its Horizon, VMware Tunnel, SEG, or Content Gateway. I’ve continued to see many customers not fully understand the right way to deploy a UAG, which we will cover today.
We are going to discuss the OVF Tool and UAGDeploy Scripts, building the RIGHT template, and deploying that template. The UAG is not for those of the feint of heart and it MUST be done correctly. I continue to see more and more people using “Deploy OVF” in the GUI and it makes me die a little bit on the inside:
The Infrastructure Behind UAG Deployments
Many of you are familiar with some of my articles I’ve written about the UAG like my WS1 Deep Dive into the UAG, but I have never focused too heavily on the UAG deployment, but I think it’s now time because people don’t seem to get it. We’re going to start by discussing the OVF Tool.
The OVF Tool
The OVF Tool is the underpinning technology that powers the UAG deployment. My typical recommendation is to run the latest supported version, but you want to pay attention to any irregularities in your deployments. When you have issues, downgrade and don’t waste time.
You might wonder why do we use OVFs? Typically we have a few reasons for leveraging the OVF format:
- Much easier to use
- OVFs support fast and robust hardware validation
- Metadata can be packaged into the OVF e.g. EULAs
- Download optimization
We use the OVF tool because it is very effective with conversion to vSphere, tools integrate very well into the OVF tool, performs signature validation, performs optimized uploads and downloads via the API, and is very flexible in general. The UAG is another example as the UAG deployment works directly with the OVF tool to seamlessly deploy new UAGs using the exact resources and put in the exact location you need. Instead of reinventing the wheel, let’s check out an OVF tool deployment below.
Leveraging UAGDeploy PowerShell Scripts
Once you have deployed the OVF Tool, we download and copy the UAGDeploy scripts. You go to the typical place where you download the OVA here and download your UAG PowerShell scripts. Pretty simply, its a PowerShell script and some example .INI files.
The idea is relatively simple. You build an .INI aka configuration file and pass it as an argument to the UAGdeploy.ps1 script to build your UAGs seamlessly with zero post-configuration. Let’s talk about my sample UAG deployment script.
Building your UAG Deployment Template
Let’s dig into the UAG deployment template. You can find my example template here, but we will break down each part of the template to show you how to build the perfect deployment template that will make your UAG deployments zero touch.
General and vSphere Settings
The major roadblock you will run into is crafting the VI Path. Let’s look at the beginning of the example code:
[General] # # UAG virtual appliance unique name (between 1 and 32 characters). # If name is not specified, the script will prompt for it. # name=uag.mobile-jon.com # # Full path filename of the UAG.ova virtual machine image # The file can be obtained from VMware # source=C:\UAGDeploy\uag-2012.ova # # target refers to the vCenter username and address/hostname and the ESXi host for deployment # Refer to the ovftool documentation for information about the target syntax. # See https://www.vmware.com/support/developer/ovf/ # PASSWORD in upper case results in a password prompt during deployment so that passwords do not need # to specified in this .INI file. # In this example, the vCenter username is email@example.com # the vCenter server is 192.168.0.21 (this can be a hostname or IP address) # the ESXi hostname is esx1.myco.int (this can be a hostname or IP address) # For older OVF Tools (pre 4.4) it was like this: target=vi://DOMAIN\USERNAME:PASSWORD@VSPHERE/DATACENTER/FOLDER/ESXI Something to point out is you "may" need to encode the password for your administrator account. A great article on this can be found here. I ran into this at one client, which required me to use %40 instead of the @ symbol, which can be found in an ASCII reference article.
Now, we use newer syntax. Your target VI path should be the username, an @ sign, followed by the vSphere server, followed by the datacenter name, followed by the word “host” typically, followed by the esxi host, such as:
One of the neat things about if you struggle with the VI path is it will provide you with possible values if you test with a minimal path e.g. target=vi://firstname.lastname@example.org:PASSWORD@vsphere01.mobile-jon.com with responses like this:
One other area to focus on is the datastore and folder path:
Typically, these are just the name of the datastore in the vSphere GUI and the logical folder path. If you keep getting “invalid VM folder” you should just try to keep it simple and specify the first folder name you see. Some trial and error might be needed there.
Check out my new video demo on discovering your VI Path below:
As you can see below, network settings aren’t too bad. You specify your virtual adapter names and configure your deployment type, network settings, etc. The main key here is to setup EXACTLY what you need. Don’t create manual process afterwards. That means routes, DNS, syslog, etc.
netInternet=VMNetwork netManagementNetwork=VMNetwork netBackendNetwork=VMNetwork deploymentOption=onenic-large ip0=192.168.1.50 netmask0=255.255.255.0 defaultGateway=192.168.1.1 routes0=192.168.1.0/24 192.168.0.1, 192.168.2.0/24 192.168.0.2 #deploymentOption=twonic #ip0=192.168.0.90 #netmask0=255.255.255.0 #ip1=192.168.0.91 #netmask1=255.255.255.0 #deploymentOption=threenic #ip0=192.168.0.90 #netmask0=255.255.255.0 #ip1=192.168.0.91 #netmask1=255.255.255.0 #ip2=192.168.0.92 #netmask2=255.255.255.0 dns=188.8.131.52 184.108.40.206 syslogUrl=syslog://syslog.mobile-jon.com:514
UAG General Settings
I typically recommend using the settings that I reference below. They’re pretty basic outside of make sure you enable TLS Port Sharing if you have multiple UEM services.
sshKeyAccessEnabled=false fipsEnabled=false sysLogType=UDP uagName=uag.mobile-jon.com clockSkewTolerance=600 locale=en_US tls12Enabled=true ipMode=STATICV4 requestTimeoutMsec=0 tls11Enabled=false clientConnectionIdleTimeout=360 tls10Enabled=false adminCertRolledBack=false ntpServers=ntp.mobile-jon.com cookiesToBeCached=* snmpEnabled=false healthCheckURL=/favicon.ico quiesceMode=false sshEnabled=true sshPasswordAccessEnabled=true isCiphersSetByUser=false tlsPortSharingEnabled=true ceipEnabled=false bodyReceiveTimeoutMsec=0 monitorInterval=60 maxConnectionsAllowedPerSession=16 cipherSuites=TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA384,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384 adminPasswordExpirationDays=0 httpConnectionTimeout=120 isTLS11SetByUser=false sessionTimeout=36000000 ssl30Enabled=false fallBackNtpServers=ntp2.mobile-jon.com honorCipherOrder=true
The more deployments that I do, the more I am leaning toward using PEM over PFX. There have been more issues with PFX as of late so as you can see below, I am using a Private Key and PEM certificate:
[SSLCert] # # From UAG 3.0 and newer, you can specify the name of a .pfx or .12 format certificate file containing the required certificate and private key and # any required intermediate certificates. In this case there is no need to use openssl commands to convert the .pfx/.p12 file into the # associated PEM certificates file and PEM private key file. # #pfxCerts=[CERTPATH] # # If there are multiple SSL certificates with private key in the .pfx file you also need to specify an alias name in order to select the required certificate. # This is not necessary if there is only one SSL certificate with private key in the file # #pfxCertAlias=alias1 # # The following pemCerts and pemPrivKey settings are only needed if you don't have a .pfx/.p12 file and want to directly use the two PEM format files. # # pemCerts refers to a PEM format file containing the SSL server certificate to be deployed. The file should also contain any # required intermediate CA and root CA certificates. # pemCerts=C:\UAGDeploy\uag.pem # pemPrivKey refers to a file containing the RSA PRIVATE KEY for the SSL server certificate in the above certificate file. # pemPrivKey=C:\UAGDeploy\uagkey.pem # # From UAG 3.2 and newer, you can specify a certificate for the admin interface on port 9443. It is in the same format as [SSLCert] above. # [SSLCertAdmin] #pfxCerts=[CERTPATH] pemCerts=C:\UAGDeploy\uag.pem pemPrivKey=C:\UAGDeploy\uagkey.pem
Below, is the code you need to pull out the pem and key from your PFXs for my recommendation:
openssl pkcs12 -in uag.pfx -nocerts -out uagkey.pem -nodes openssl pkcs12 -in uag.pfx -nokeys -out uag.pem openssl rsa -in uagkey.pem -out uagkey.key
Workspace ONE UEM Configuration
You can see my example code below for the UEM services. A few things to point out:
- API passwords will always prompt you during the UAGDeploy so its pointless here.
- Make sure your trusted certificates for backend communication are present.
- Make sure your health check URLs are solid.
- “Airwatch” is for Tunnel.
[Airwatch] tunnelGatewayEnabled=true apiServerUrl=as420.awmdm.com apiServerUsername=uagadmin apiServerPassword= organizationGroupCode=mobilejon airwatchServerHostname=tunnel.mobile-jon.com ntlmAuthentication=false healthCheckURL=/favicon.ico airwatchOutboundProxy=false reinitializeGatewayProcess=false trustedCert1=C:\UAGDeploy\root.cer trustedCert2=C:\UAGDeploy\int.cer [AirwatchSecureEmailGateway] memConfigurationID=XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXX-XXXXXXXXXXX apiServerUsername=uagadmin trustedCert1=C:\UAGDeploy\root.cer trustedCert2=C:\UAGDeploy\int.cer ntlmAuthentication=false healthCheckURL=/favicon.ico apiServerUrl=as420.awmdm.com airwatchOutboundProxy= apiServerPassword= reinitializeGatewayProcess= airwatchServerHostname=seg.mobile-jon.com [AirwatchContentGateway] cgConfigId= apiServerUsername= trustedCert1= ntlmAuthentication=false apiServerUrl= airwatchOutboundProxy=false apiServerPassword= reinitializeGatewayProcess=false airwatchServerHostname=
UAG Deployment via UAG Deploy
The actual deployment is very simple once you have everything solid. You can see an example below:
The great thing about using private keys and PEM certificates is you eliminate 1/3 of the password prompts through deployments, which is never bad. You simply just:
.\uagdeploy.ps1 -iniFile mobilejon.ini
The idea is that you build something that is rinse and repeat. That means updating your config file when you make changes like disabling specific ciphers, modifying timeouts, etc. A few things to keep in mind when you deploy:
- Disable the NICs, power down the old UAG prior to deployment, and re-name it.
- Make sure you have your certificates, valid routes, and credentials ready when deploying so you can be successful.
- Don’t be a hero! Ask for help so you don’t spend 10 hours trying to figure it out.
- If you have issues, downgrade your OVF Tool right away instead of being stubborn.
Now, we additionally have a new collection of parameters we can specify to make life so much better. These are the various supported parameters now:
- iniFile (The INI file path duh!)
- rootPwd (lets you specify the root password)
- adminPwd (lets you specify the admin password)
- disableVerification (self explanatory)
- noSSLVerify (bypasses SSL verification of your vSphere)
- ceipEnabled (lets you say if you want to opt in or not)
- awAPIServerPwd (specifies the password for your WS1 API account)
- awTunnelGatewayAPIServerPwd (same as above, but for Tunnel)
- awCGAPIServerPwd (same as above, but for Content Gateway)
- awSEGAPIServerPwd (same as above, but for SEG)
- newAdminUserPwd (this one is really neat, it lets you create the monitoring user accounts for stuff like API and monitoring tools, e.g.: monitoringUser1:P@ssw0rd1;monitoringUser2:P@ssw0rd2)
So a good example of a solid command:
##Make sure to unblock file first. It will let you tab complete your parameters## Unblock-File C:\uagdeploy\uagdeploy.ps1 .\uagdeploy.ps1 -iniFile uag.ini -rootPwd M0bileJ0n! -adminPwd M0bileJ0n! -ceipEnabled true -awSEGAPIServerPwd YayWS1Yay! -NoSSLVerify true
UAG deployments can be intimidating, but they don’t have to be. Put in the time and effort to build a great template to make your upgrades seamless. You can take an upgrade from hours to minutes with strong design and a thorough template. The Unified Access Gateway is here to stay! It’s time to stop avoiding it and tackle it to deliver a great user experience. Many services run so MUCH better now on the UAG, such as the VMware Tunnel. Don’t be afraid to ask for help because once you build the foundation you will be rock solid!